terminologie IT a->o

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ADSL – An acronym for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.  ADSL is technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines.  ADSL supports data rates of from 128 kilobits per second to 9 megabits per second when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 kilobits per second to 4 megabits per second when sending data (known as the upstream rate).  ADSL requires a special ADSL modem.  (Also see xDSL)

Bandwidth – The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. For digital devices, the bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second(bps) or bytes per second(Bps).

Bit – An abbreviation for binary digit.  A bit is the smallest unit of information on any machine.  A single bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1.  More meaningful information is obtained by combining consecutive bits into larger units.  For example, a byte is composed of 8 consecutive bits.

bps – An acronym for bits per second.  This is the standard measurement of data transmission speeds, mainly used for bandwidth speeds.

Bps – An acronym for bytes per second.  This is a more popular form of measurement of data transmission speeds.

Broadband –  A type of data transmission in which a single medium (wire) can carry several channels at once.  Cable TV, for example, uses broadband transmission.

Byte – An abbreviation for binaryterm.  It’s a unit of storage capable of holding a single character.  On almost all modern computers, a byte is equal to 8 bits.  Large amounts of memory are indicated in terms of kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes.

Cable –  Through the use of a cable modem you can have a broadband  Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines.  Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission, with certain channels used for downstream transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission.   Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access to the Web.  This, combined with the fact that millions of homes are already wired for cable TV, has made cable Internet service something cable TV companies have really jumped onboard with.

Choked –  When a connection is choked, it means that the transmitter isn’t currently sending anything else on the link.  A BitTorrent Client signals that it’s choked to other clients for a number of reasons, the most common is that by default a client will only maintain — max_uploads active simultaneous uploads, the rest will be marked choked.  A connection can also be choked for other reasons, for example a peer downloading from a seed will mark his connection as choked since the seed has no need to receive.  (Also see Snubbed)

Client – The client part of a client-server architecture.  Typically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or workstation and relies on a server to perform some operations.  More commonly referred to as a BitTorrent client in the torrent community.

Credit System – A forced sharing situation that attempts to eliminate leechers.  In this system a user is given credit towards downloading for each upload made.  (See also Ratio)

Data – Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way.  All software is divided into two general categories: data and programs.  Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data.  Data can exist in a variety of forms — as numbers or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a person’s mind.  Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece of information.  In practice, however, people use data as both the singular and plural form of the word.

Decentralized Network – A network topology where each user of the network is able to distribute information and queries directly through other users of the network rather than relying on a central server to act as an indexing agent.

DHCP –  An acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  This is a protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network.  With dynamic addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the network.  In some systems, the device’s IP address can even change while it is still connected.  DHCP also supports a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses.  Dynamic addressing simplifies network administration because the software keeps track of IP addresses rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task.  This means that a new computer can be added to a network without the hassle of manually assigning it a unique IP address.

DHT – An acronym for Distributed Hash Tables.  These are a class of decentralized, distributed systems and algorithms being developed to provide a scalable, self-configuring infrastructure with a clean programming interface. This infrastructure can then be used to support more complex services. DHTs can be used to store data, as well as route and disseminate information. DHTs are named after hash tables because they assign responsibility for a piece of data based on a hash function (often SHA-1); each node acts like a bucket in a hash table. A DHT provides an efficient lookup algorithm (or network routing method) that allows one participating node to quickly determine which other machine is responsible for a given piece of data.

Distributed Copies –  In some versions of the client, you will see “Connected to x seeds; also seeing x.xxx distributed copies.”  A seed is a computer with the complete file.  However, the swarm can collectively have a complete copy (or copies) of the file, even without seeds a complete distributed copy can be available if the sum total of the users have a complete copy among themselves.  BitTorrent doesn’t distribute in sequential order, so this is possible.

Distributed Hash – A technology that can be used to develop a common infrastructure for distributed or peer-to-peer applications, including storage and multicasting.  (See also DHT)

Download –  To copy data (usually an entire file) from a main source to a peripheral device.  The term is often used to describe the process of copying a file from an online service or bulletin board service  (BBS) to one’s own computer.  Downloading can also refer to copying a file from a network file server to a computer on the network.  (Also see  Downstream)

Downstream – A transmission from a server to an end user.  A downstream transmission can be in the form of a signal being transmitted from a server to a workstation across a network, such as a LAN, or a signal being sent from a cable service provider to a customer.  (Also see Download)

DSL – An acronym for Digital Subscriber Line.  (Also see xDSL)

Dynamic –  Refers to actions that take place at the moment they are needed rather than in advance.  For example, you are not assigned an IP address from your ISP, until you connect to your ISP.  Once you disconnect, that IP address you were assigned, is sent back to the IP pool.  When you connect again, you will be given a different IP address than the last one you were assigned.

E1 –  Similar to the North American T1, E1 is the European format for digital transmission.  E1 carries signals at 2 Mbps (32 channels at 64Kbps, with 2 channels reserved for signaling and controlling), versus the T1, which carries signals at 1.544 Mbps (24 channels at 64Kbps).  E1 and T1 lines may be interconnected for international use.

Encryption –  The translation of data into a secret code.  Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security.  To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it.  Unencrypted data is called plain text ; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text.  There are two main types of encryption: asymmetric encryption (also called public-key encryption) and symmetric encryption.

File – A collection of data or information that has a name, called the filename.  Almost all information stored in a computer must be in a file.  There are many different types of files: data  files, text files, program files, directory files, and so on.  Different types of files store different types of information.  For example, program files store programs, whereas text files store text.

File Sharing – The act of BOTH receiving AND sending of files to other users. This is different from someone who only receives files, called a leeching.

Firewall – A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.  Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both.  Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets.  All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.  (For more information, please see Firewall)

FiOS – An acronym for Fiber Optic Service.  An internet service which uses optic fiber for data transfers.  (Also see Optic fiber)

Gb – An abbreviation for gigabit.  There are 1073741824 bits in (1) gigabit.  (Also see Gigabit)

GB – An abbreviation for gigabyte.  There are 1073741824 bytes in (1) gigabyte.  (Also see Gigabyte)

Gigabit – Used to describe data storage.  (Also see Gb)

Gigabyte – Used to describe data storage.  (Also see GB)

Hash(ing) – Producing hash values for accessing data or for security.  A hash value (or simply hash), also called a message digest, is a number generated from a string of text.  The hash is substantially smaller than the text itself, and is generated by a formula in such a way that it is extremely unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value.  Hashes play a role in security systems where they’re used to ensure that transmitted messages have not been tampered with.  The sender generates a hash of the message, encrypts it, and sends it with the message itself.  The recipient then decrypts both the message and the hash, produces another hash from the received message, and compares the two hashes.  If they’re the same, there is a very high probability that the message was transmitted intact.

HDSL – An acronym for High data rate Digital Subscriber Line.  HDSL is an international standard for symmetric DSL developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).  HDSL provides for sending and receiving high-speed symmetrical data streams over a single pair of copper wires at rates between 192 KBps and 2.31 MBps. HDSL was developed to incorporate the features of other DSL technologies, such as ADSL and SDSL and will transport T1, E1, ISDN, ATM and IP signals.  (Also see xDSL)

HTTP – An acronym for HyperText Transfer Protocol.  HTTP is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web.  HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.  For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.  In the world of BitTorrent, a HTTP torrent is a torrent tracked by a tracker using the TCP ports.

Hub –  A common connection point for devices in a network.  Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN.  A hub contains multiple ports.  When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.  A passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device (or segment) to another.  So-called intelligent hubs include additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub.  Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs.  A third type of hub, called a switching hub, actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port.

Intrested –  Term used in the protocol specification.  Refers to the state of a downloader with respect to a connection.  A downloader is marked as interested if the other end of the link has any pieces that the client wants, otherwise the connection is marked as not interested.

IP – An acronym for Internet Protocol.  IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme.  IP by itself, is something like the postal system.  It allows you to address a package and drop it in the system, but there’s no direct link between you and the recipient.

IP address –  An identifier for a computer or device  on a TCP/IP network.  Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination.  The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods.  Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 1.160.10.240 could be an IP address.  Within an isolated network, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique.  However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates.

ISDN – An acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network.  This is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires.  ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second).  The original version of ISDN employs baseband transmission.  Another version, called B-ISDN, uses broadband transmission and is able to support transmission rates of 1.5 Mbps.  B-ISDN requires fiber optic cables and is not widely available.

ISP – An acronym for Internet Service Provider.  These are companies that provides access to the Internet.  For a monthly fee, the service provider gives you a software package, username, password and access phone number(s) (for dial-up).  Equipped with a modem, you can then log on to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web and USENET, and send and receive e-mail.  In addition to serving individuals, ISPs also serve large companies, providing a direct connection from the company’s networks to the Internet.  ISPs themselves are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs).  ISPs are also called IAPs (Internet Access Providers).

kb – An abbreviation for kilobit.  There are 1024 bits in (1) kilobit.  (Also see Kilobit)

Kb – An abbreviation for kilobyte.  There are 1024 bytes in (1) kilobyte.  (Also see Kilobyte)

Kbps – An acronym for Kilobits per second.  (Also see bps)

KBps – An acronym for Kilobytes per second.  (Also see Bps)

Kilobit – Used to describe data storage.  (Also see kb)

Kilobyte – Used to describe data storage.  (Also see Kb)

LAN – An acronym for Local Area Network.   A computer  network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings.   Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers.  Each node (individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN.  This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data.   LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster than data can be transmitted over a telephone line; but the distances are limited, and there is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN.  (For more information, see LAN)  (Also see WAN)

Leech(er) – A file-sharing user that does not allow others to download from him and only takes from others is a LEECH. And remember folks, nobody likes a leecher
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Locally Queued – The amount of files you permit to simultaneously download is referred to as your local queue.

mb – An abbreviation for megabit.  There are 1048576 bits in (1) megabit.  (Also see Megabit)

MB – An abbreviation for megabyte.  There are 1048576 bytes in (1) megabyte.  (Also see Megabyte)

Mbps – An acronym for megabits per second.  This is a standard measurement of data transmission speeds, mainly used for bandwidth speeds.

MBps – An acronym for megabytes per second.

Megabit – Used to describe data storage.  (Also see mb)

Megabyte – Used to describe data storage.  (Also see MB)

MPAA – An acronym for Motion Pictures Association of America.  The MPAA, originally called the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association, is a non-profit trade association based in the United States which was formed to advance the interests of movie studios. Its members consist of seven major studios: the Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Twentieth Century Fox, Universal Studios, and Warner Bros. The organization produces the well-known voluntary film rating system.  This is an organization who  attempts to fight piracy.  Visit the MPAA home page for more information, as well as contact information to send hate mail.

MultiSource – Multi-source is a term that describes the transfer of a file that is downloaded from two or more locations.

NAT – An acronym for Network Address Translation.  This is an Internet standard that enables a local-area network (LAN) to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a second set of addresses for external traffic.  A NAT box located where the LAN meets the Internet makes all necessary IP address translations.
NAT serves three main purposes:

  • Provides a type of firewall by hiding internal IP addresses
  • Enables a company to use more internal IP addresses.  Since they’re used internally only, there’s no possibility of conflict with IP addresses used by other companies and organizations.
  • Allows a company to combine multiple ISDN connections into a single Internet connection.

Newbie – Although originally designed to describe “newbies” to the gaming scene, this is now a general term to describe anyone who is consistent with being or acting stupid.  Also used the same way, is newb, noob, and noobie.

NFO – Pronounced like ‘info’. That is exactly what it means also.  This can also be a file with a .nfo extension.  These are ascii text files that describe a release of some sort (program, movie, game, album, etc.) .nfo files can be viewed in any text editor/viewer, but are best viewed by an ascii text enabled editor/viewer.

Octet –  An octet is 8 bits. It is equivalent to a byte, as long as the byte is also 8 bits. Bytes range from 4 – 10 bits, but octets are  always 8 bits.

Optic fiber – An optical fiber (or fibre) is a transparent thin fiber, usually made of glass or plastic, for transmitting light.  Fiber optics is the branch of science and engineering concerned with such optical fibers.  For more information, see Optic Fiber.  (Also see FiOS)

Optimistic Unchoking –  Periodically, the client shakes up the list of uploaders and tries sending on different connections that were previously choked, and choking the connections it was just using.  You can observe this action every 10 or 20 seconds or so, by watching the “Advanced” panel of one of the experimental clients.

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Comments on: "terminologie IT a->o" (1)

  1. Tres intiresno, gracias